Starchy foods are the main sources of carbohydrates; however, there is limited information on their metabolic impact. Therefore, we assessed the association between carbohydrates from starchy foods (Carb-S) intakes and the metabolic disorders of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hyperlipidemia. In this study, 4,154 participants from Northern China were followed up for 4.2 years. Carb-S included rice, refined wheat, tubers, and their products. Multivariable regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for MetS and hyperlipidemia from Carb-S, total carbohydrates, and carbohydrates from other food sources (Carb-O). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine a Carb-S cut-off value. High total carbohydrate intake was associated with increased risks of MetS (RR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.00–5.03) and hyperlipidemia (RR: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.25–7.45), compared with the first quartile. High Carb-S intake (fourth quartile) was significantly associated with MetS (RR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01–2.69) and hyperlipidemia (RR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.05–3.35). No associations with Carb-O were observed. Visceral adiposity, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly contributed to the metabolic disorders. The Carb-S cut-off value was 220 g. Both high total carbohydrate and Carb-S intakes were associated with hyperlipidemia and MetS; Carb-S appears to contribute more to these disorders.