Hyperinsulinemia plays the dominant role in provoking obesity and fatty liver disease, but what causes it? Insulin is intimately related to our diet, so that was naturally the first place to look. Highly refined and processed carbohydrates, such as sugars, flour, bread, pasta, muffins, donuts, rice and potatoes are well known to raise blood glucose and insulin production. This became known as the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis, and forms the rational basis for many of the low carbohydrate diets such as the Atkins diet.
These are not new ideas, but very old ones. The first low carbohydrate diet dates all the way back to the mid 19th century. William Banting (1796–1878) published in 1863 the pamphlet Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public, which is often considered the world’s first diet book. Weighing 202 pounds (91.6 kilograms), Banting had been trying unsuccessfully to lose weight by eating less and exercising more. But, just as today’s dieters, he was unsuccessful.