The UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study) was a huge study undertaken in the UK to see if intensive blood glucose lowering in T2D would prevent end organ damage over long run. The DCCT study mentioned previously had already established the paradigm of tight blood sugar control in Type 1, but whether this held true for type 2 remained to be seen.
3867 newly diagnosed T2D patients who failed a 3 month lifestyle therapy trial were enrolled into an intensive group with sulfonlyureas or insulin versus conventional control (UKPDS 33). The intensive group would target a fasting glucose of less than 6.0 mmol/L. In the conventional group, drugs were only added if FBG exceeded 15. If high blood sugars was the primary cause of disease, then this intensive group should do better. We can move the sugar from the blood into the body with drugs, but the price to be paid is excessively high insulin levels. Remember that these T2D patients had a baseline level of insulin that was already high. We would raise them even further in order to lower blood sugars.